The brain is an incredibly valuable organ, but is fragile, and can grow old. Protecting the brain’s structure and functions is of utmost importance and there are some natural, supportive and effective nutrients that you can use to help protect your and your clients brain capital. One such nutrient is citicoline.
Cytidine-5’-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline, or citicoline) is an endogenous compound normally produced by the body. In clinical practice, a number of different studies have clearly shown that citicoline is effective in cognitive impairment of diverse aetiology, cerebrovascular disease, head trauma, glaucoma, amblyopia, and Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is able to potentiate neuroplasticity and is a natural precursor of phospholipid synthesis, chiefly phosphatidylcholine, or rather serves as a choline source in the metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of acetylcholine1-3. On a molecular basis, CDP-choline activates the biosynthesis of structural phospholipids in the neuronal membranes and increases cerebral metabolism, noradrenaline, and dopamine levels in the central nervous system (CNS)1.
Citicoline has been shown to be of benefit in vascular cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease, especially when associated with significant cerebrovascular disease4. Stroke can double the risk of dementia; a trial lasting 12 months in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke showed that citicoline prevented cognitive decline after stroke, with significant improvements in temporal orientation, attention, and executive functions5.
The VITA study and the IDEALE study also showed substantial benefits in vascular cognitive impairment6-7. Other studies have clearly demonstrated citicoline’s effects on several cognitive domains8. Citicoline has been shown to:
- Improve both immediate and delayed recall of words and objects;
- Ameliorate short- and long-term memory, attention, and perceptual-motor ability, as well as behavioural and emotional control;
- Improve verbal memory functioning in older individuals with relatively inefficient memory.
Cognizin® is a proprietary form of citicoline that has been clinically studied to support mental energy, focus and attention9-11.
1. Secades JJ, Frontera G. CDP-choline: pharmacological and clinical review. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1995; 17(suppl B):1–54.
2. Fioravanti M, Yanagi M. Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP-choline) for cognitive and behavioural disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; 18(2): CD000269.
3. Hurtado O, Lizasoain I, Moro MÁ. Neuroprotection and recovery: recent data at the bench on citicoline. 2011; 42(suppl1): S33–S35.
4. Ludbrook GL, James MF et al. The effect of magnesium sulphate on cerebral blood flow, velocity, cardiovascular variables, and arterial carbon dioxide tension in awake sheep. Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 1999 Apr; 11(2): 96-101.
5. Krupinski J, Slevin M, Badimon L. Citicoline inhibits MAP kinase signalling pathways after focal cerebral ischaemia. Neurochem Res. 2005; 30(8):1067–1073.
6. Putignano S, Gareri P, Castagna A, et al. Retrospective and observational study to assess the efficacy of citicoline in elderly patients suffering from stupor related to complex geriatric syndrome. Clin Interv Aging. 2012; 7:113–118.
7. Cotroneo AM, Castagna A, Putignano S, et al. Effectiveness and safety of citicoline in mild vascular cognitive impairment: the IDEALE study. Clin Interv Aging. 2013; 8:131–137.
8. García-Cobos R, Frank-García A, Gutiérrez-Fernández M, Díez-Tejedor E. Citicoline, use in cognitive decline: vascular and degenerative. J Neurol Sci. 2010; 299(1–2):188–192.
9. McGlade, E. et al. Cognizin® citicoline increases motor speed and attention in healthy adolescent males. Journal of Attention Disorders 2015; July 15.
10. McGlade, E. et al. Improved attentional performance following citicoline administration in healthy adult women. Food and Nutrition Sciences 2012; 3: 769-773.
11. Silveri MM et al. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR Biomed. 2008; 21(10):1066-75.